SOCIÉTÉ

Lang matènèl, lang lejitim, lang lasyans

30

Saonha Lyrvole Jean Baptiste, M li tèks ou ekri en repons a atik mwen an. Mèsi anpil. M twouve ou pran san w pou ou ekri l epi li byen chita. Se sou twa pwen m wè ou kritike m. Lang matènèl, lang lejitim epi lang lasyans. M twouve kritik ou yo gen valè e men repons m ka ba ou.

Lang matènèl

Pou lang matènèl la, ou di m nan eksperyans pèsonèl ou, ou gen lang franse a pou lang matènèl, kòm lang yo pale nan fanmi w e ke se nan ale lekòl ak nan pale ak moun ki t ap travay lakay ou yo ke ou aprann kreyòl. Definisyon ou bay de lang matènèl la se : « Yon lang ou pa aprann pale, ou leve ou jwenn manman w ak papa w ap pale l epi ou pale l » . M panse definisyon ou bay la kòrèk. Ou di sa pou konteste fraz kote m di « Tout ayisyen genyen kreyòl pou lang matènèl ». M dakò avè w se vre kapab gen yon ti pati nan popilasyon an ki pa gen lang kreyòl pou lang matènèl. Paske kapab gen moun ki leve ann Ayiti e ke paran yo pale lòt lang oubyen tou, yo entèdi timoun yo pale kreyòl.

Ou panse m ta ka nan menm sitiyasyon an tou. Sa m ka di, se ke sitiyasyon m pi konplèks, e ke gen yon bagay ki jwe tou ant ou menm avè m. Non sèlman pa gen moun ki te entèdi m pale kreyòl lakay mwen, epi se ke fi gen plis tandans pou pale lang lejitim la lè yo konn pale l. Mwen menm kòm gason nan peyi a, m pat jwenn anpil okazyon pou m te pale franse, paske jenn gason difisil pou pale franse ak gason parèy yo ann Ayiti. Sa vin fè ke menm lè m te konn li l ak ekri l, m te plis abitye pale kreyòl lontan pase pale franse.

M ap pwofite pou mwen fè yon ti kritik sou izaj lengwistik nosyon lang matènèl la. Jan ou di l la, malgre se lang franse ki lang matènèl ou, ou vin pale kreyòl nan yon pwen ke l « vin pase pou lang matènèl ou ». M panse sa se yon defo ki genyen nan nosyon lang matènèl la menm. Ann di ke nou gen yon timoun ki fèt nan Lafrans, moun li t ap viv avè yo te pale franse sèlman, jiska laj 5an li vin ann Ayiti, li jwenn yon nouvo fanmi ki akeyi l ki pale kreyòl sèlman. Lè timoun sa ap gen 10an l ap plis konn pale kreyòl pase l konn pale franse paske l pèdi abitid pale franse a. Lè kon sa, di lang franse se lang matènèl timoun sa a pa chanje anyen paske li rete pi alèz lè l ap pale kreyòl pase lè l ap pale franse.

Se sa k fè si n ap fè sosyoloji, e m ap korije sa apati jodi a, pito nou ranplase nosyon lang matènèl la pa nosyon abitid la. Sa ki enterese m, se pa si yon moun nan nivo endividyèl oubyen yon gwoup moun nan popilasyon an te akeri yon lang lè yo te timoun men se nan ki pwen yo kapab kenbe abitid pale lang sa a nan sosyete a. Jan manman lwa peyi a di l : « sèl lang ki simante tout ayisyen ansanm se lang kreyòl la ». Gen moun ki rive kenbe abitid pale angle ak franse nan peyi a men sa rete nan yon kad, nan yon zòn. Sa gen dwa kad travay yo oubyen kad fanmi yo. Men lang tout moun dwe pale pou yo kapab antre an kontak ak tout manm sosyete a se kreyòl. Nou ta gen dwa fè metafò sila a : si manman nou tout se Ayiti, lang manman tout ayisyen se lang kreyòl. Men la a nou pa ann afè ak lang matènèl chak moun apa, men nou nan abitid lengwistik moun yo genyen anndan sosyete a.

Lang lejitim

Si ou wè kèk fwa genyen diskriminasyon ki fèt sou moun ki pale franse, se pa menm diskriminasyon sa a ki fèt sou moun ki pale kreyòl yo. Diskriminasyon ki fèt sou kreyòl la se yon gwoup sosyal dominan ki fè l sou yon gwoup sosyal ki pa lejitim lè li pale an kreyòl nan pawòl entelektyèl. Men nan moun sa yo lang kreyòl la sou wout pou li vin lang lejitim e li dwòl pou yon ayisyen al pale franse jodi a ak yon moun ki gen plis abitid pale kreyòl.

Se vre, jan yon moun pale kreyòl varye dapre istwa lavi l e fòk nou aksepte sa. Men gen yon fenomèn ann Ayiti kote moun ki mal pale kreyòl la se moun ki nan pozisyon dominan nan echèl sosyal la kote yo di « eu » nan plas « e ». Sa se yon fenomèn ki enteresan e ki pa fèt tout kote e ki ta merite plis etid. M panse sa soti nan moun ki travay sou òtograf kreyòl la ki te pran yon pozisyon kont lang dominan an. Men fòk nou pa bliye, lè yon ayisyen pale franse epi li di « e » nan plas « eu » yo kontinye ap di l se franse mawon alòske gen yon diferans ant franse ayisyen pale ak franse yo pale an Frans la e si se pou sa, pi fò ayisyen ki pale franse pale franse mawon, paske yo pa pale menm jan ak franse ki nan Lafrans, kidonk fòk nou akspete ke franse ayisyen an se yon franse ki ankreyole1 li ye.

Apre sa, ou di m sosyete a aksepte lang franse a kòm lang lejitim. Si w tounen gad tèks m ekri a, w ap wè ke se sa a menm ke m di. Pou lang franse a kapab rete lang gwoup moun anwo yo pale fòk sosyete a aksepte l kòm lang lejitim. Men gen yon tandans ann Ayiti, paske se yon peyi endepandan, pou lang tout ayisyen yo pale vin lang lejitim nan pwòp peyi l. Se kon sa politik la vin fèt an kreyòl, majorite medya yo vin kominike an kreyòl, vin gen kou kreyòl yo bay lekòl, gen anpil pwofesè ki kòmanse ap bay kou yo an kreyòl. Fòk nou pran konsyans ke sitiyasyon an pa t toujou konsa nan peyi a e ke sa gen tandans chanje. Tout jan, se pa yon chanjman k ap fèt bridsoukou e l ap pran tan pou l pran an. Men tou, fòk nou konmanse pare nou depi kounye a pou chanjman an byen fèt e pou li pa fèt yon jan ki andikape.

Lang lasyans

Pou kreyòl kòm lang lasyans, lang franse a te gen menm pwoblèm yo anvan li vin lang lasyans epi gen mo tankou « courbe », « horizontal », »ligne », « droite », ki jodi a reprezante mo ki abstrè men ki pa t vle di anyen ki abstrè anvan nan lang franse a. Epi menm jan lang franse a pran anpil mo nan laten an epi yo fransize l, se kon sa, lang kreyòl la kapab prete mo nan franse a epi kreyolize yo. Genyen yon potorik entelektyèl afriken ki rele Cheikh Anta Diop ki pwopoze nan dezyèm pati liv li a, Nations nègres et culture, yon pakèt mo pou tradui mo matematik an wòlòf ki se lang majorite senegalè yo. M panse fòk gen entelektyèl ki chita fè menm travay la pou kreyòl ayisyen an e nou panse se sa ki travay Akademi Kreyòl la e se youn nan rezon ki fè akademi a nesesè. Pou pwopozisyon ou fè a pou tradiksyon fòmil matematik ak chimi yo an kreyòl yo. Nou kapab fè l e yon moun pa oblije aprann franse pou li aprann lasyans, okontrè fòk nou di lasyans la nan yon lang ki pi fasil pou konprann. Mwen pa ka konprann tradiksyon ou fè a nonplis men la se pa yon pwoblèm ki nan lang yo se paske ou mal tradui l. M pa yon spesyalis tradiksyon men m swiv kèk kou tradiksyon nan fakilte kote m ap etidye a, premye bagay pou yon moun konnen lè l ap fè tradiksyon se ke yo pa tradui fòm sa moun lan di a men sa moun lan vle di a. Sa vle di, ou pa ka tradui « carré » an franse ki vle di « miltiplikasyon chif la pa li menm » pa « kare » an kreyòl. Sa rive ke lè w ap tradui yon bagay w oblije eksplike sa l vle di a nan lang w ap tradui l lan. Fòmil ou di m an franse a, ki sa l vle di ?

« Nan yon triyang ki gen yon kwen 90 degre, lè nou fin fè chak kote ki pi piti yo miltipliye tèt yo 2 fwa, adisyon 2 kote sa yo bay kòm rezilta : kote ki pi long la ki miltipliye tèt li 2 fwa. A2+B2=C2 » 

« Tout bagay ki lage nan yon likid, sibi yon fòs soti nan likid la ki pouse l anwo. Fòs sa a egal ak kantite likid ki deplase a.  »

Lè nou fin esplike sa teyori sa yo vle di, lè sa a nou ka fè fòmilasyon ki koresponn ak lang kreyòl la. Men enpòtan an se pa fòmil la, se ke moun kapab konprann sa fòmil la vle di.

Fabian Charles

  1. Créoliser v t: Ankréyolé :Lè Chamwazo ka ékri, i pa ka enki ankréyolé lang fwansé la. Quand Chamoiseau écrit, il ne se contente pas de créoliser le français. Dictionnaire des néologismes, Pawol-Nef, Raphael Confiant et Serge Colot

Referans

Berrouët-Oriol, Robert (2015) Gwo chantye sou kesyon tradiksyon nan lang kreyòl ayisyen, Parole en Archipel.
Charles, Fabian (2015) Ki sa pale vle di ann Ayiti ?, Parole en Archipel.
Confiant, Raphael (2000) Dictionnaire des néologismes créoles, Ibis Rouge Editions.
Degraff, Michel
(2013) Teknoloji-Pedagoji: Ti koze ak pwofesè Michel DeGraff sou nouvo teknoloji pou ansèyman syans ak matematik ann Ayiti, Alterpresse.
Diop, Cheikh Anta (1954) Nations nègres et culture, Editions Présence Africaine.
Lyrvole, Saonha (2015) Kòmantè sou atik: « Kisa pale vle di ann Ayiti? », Parole en Archipel.
Saint Fort, Hugues (2015) Enpòtans lang matènèl lan yon sosyete, Potomitan.
Saint Fort, Hugues (2015) Le «marché linguistique» haïtien: fonctionnement, idéologie, avenir, Potomitan.

 

Commentaires

Fabian Charles
Fabian Charles is a haitian poet who studies philosophy and sociology. He already published three books. Séquences d'une confusion nue (2009), Anonymat (2012), Les Racines de la page (2014).

    Plas ak rapò lang kreyòl ak fransè nan sosyete a

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