ART & LITERATUREDISCOVERING HAITI

La vérité sur le premier roman publié en créole haïtien

52

En 1965 est apparu chez Boukan Ti Jak de Carrié Paultre, un roman en créole qui dramatise les deux pôles d’attraction de la vie haïtienne: la ville contre la campagne (réédité en 1970). Il s’agit de l’histoire d’un jeune garçon, fils de paysans, intelligent et laborieux, envoyé en ville par ses parents afin de poursuivre ses études.

La vie de la ville le captive, tout comme une fille du nom de Mago. Avec Mago, il est confronté au dilemme, de choisir entre une carrière confortable en ville, ou de revenir pour aider sa famille en difficulté à la campagne. Nous ne savons pas pourquoi ce roman de la littérature créole-haïtien n’a jamais été réédité à l’heure actuelle. Son auteur avait aussi publié Amarant en 1967 et Tonton Libin en 1978.

Ti Jak: Le premier roman créole-haïtien?

tijakLe roman Ti Jak de Carrié Paultre nous prouve que, contrairement à ce que disent officiellement des critiques de la littérature créole, Dezafi de Frankétienne, édité en 1975 [la même année que «Lanmou pa gin bariè» roman en trois tomes d’Émile Célestin-Mégie, 1975, 1977, 1981] n’est pas le premier roman en date de la littérature haïtienne d’expression créole.

Car, avant Dezafi existait déjà Ti Jak de Carrié Paultre publié en 1965. Même si la facture de Dezafi dépasse de loin celle de Ti Jak, on ne peut ignorer le fait que Ti Jak a été publié 10 années avant.

Loin de vouloir déranger certaines personnes ou plaire à certaines autres, il s’agit tout simplement d’une des perspectives qui visent de remettre l’histoire à l’endroit, au moment des grands débats soulignant la situation des langues créoles et la promulgation du gouvernement haïtien de la loi sur la création d’une Académie du créole haïtien.

Carrié Paultre (1924–1999)

Écrivain haïtien très peu cité de la littérature haïtienne. Créoliste, éditeur et rédacteur. Carrié Paultre est né le 8 mars 1924, dans une famille protestante et très distinguée de Saint-Marc, dans la région de l’Artibonite, en Haïti.

Il a été formé comme agronome à l’École d’agronomie d’Haïti à Damien, près de Port-au-Prince, après avoir terminé ses études primaires à Saint-Marc et ses études secondaires dans la capitale.

À partir de 1948, il a servi pendant deux ans comme agronome pour le Departement de l’Agriculture dans le Plateau central, mais la mort de son père a nécessité son retour à Saint-Marc pour diriger l’entreprise familiale d’exportation de café.

Puis de 1961 à 1963, il a été à nouveau de service en tant qu’agronome, cette fois dans le programme de développement de la vallée de l’Artibonite. Carrié Paultre, un fin défenseur de la langue créole, qui aimait la culture, les gens, et faisait des choses très concrètes afin de promouvoir ce qui élèverait et éduquerait la masse paysanne en Haïti.

Selon Bryant C. Freeman, professeur émérite des études Afro-américaines à l’Université du Kansas, «l’oeuvre en créole de l’écrivain non reconnu de la littérature haïtienne Carrié Paultre symbolise les épreuves et les tribulations d’un peuple et d’une nation, elle retrace les vicissitudes de la grande partie de la nation haïtienne.» Si cela est vrai, il s’agit donc d’un écrivain important que tout le monde doit connaitre.

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Première publication Huffington Post Québec

Image: Coupdefoudre.com

Commentaires

Thélyson Orélien
Né aux Gonaïves en Haïti, Thélyson Orélien a fait ses études de droit à l’Université d’État d’Haïti puis il a entrepris son cycle d’études d’économie et de politique à l’Université de Montréal au Canada. Auteur, journaliste, blogueur au Huffington Post Québec. Il collabore à plusieurs revues, magazines et journaux.

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