CULTUREDISCOVERING HAITIEN UNESOCIÉTÉ

Et si l’on vous contait les Loas?

42

Le thème proposé par l’équipe d’Ayibopost le mois dernier m’a beaucoup intrigué et les divers articles publiés ont suscité mon engouement pour en apprendre davantage sur cette religion tant dédaignée, le vaudou. J’ai pu constater que le Vaudou Haïtien et le Catholicisme sont en quelque sorte très synchronisés et je trouve cette concordance assez fascinante. Cependant, comme le créole, le vaudou est perçu comme la saleté, la laideur, la bestialité. Le pratiquant du Vaudou est vu comme un illettré, un citoyen non éduqué, le diable en personne. Tout comme le français, nous avons adopté le Christianisme, hérité de nos colons Européens, et régurgité le Vaudou qui a contribué en grande partie à l’acquisition de notre indépendance. Bref, le but de cet article n’est pas de ressasser des faits dont vous êtes déjà presque tous conscients, mais de vous conter brièvement l’histoire du Vodou Haïtien, en vous présentant quelques « Loas » populaires dans la communauté Haïtienne.

 

Krik ? Krak !

 Nan tan kolonizasyon, blan Eropeyen yo te twouve li enpòtan pou rès nasyon yo aprann ak pratike relijyon yo ki te Krisyanis. Lè esklav Afriken yo rive Ayiti, yo te anpeche yo pratike pwòp relijyon pa yo ki te Vodou. Kidonk, esklav yo te konn pran imaj sen Katolik yo pou fè komsi yap adore yo, alòske se lespri pa yo yo te konn ap rele. Lespri sa yo, yo rele yo « mistè » oswa « lwa ». Se sak fè, kontrèman ak Vodou ke yo pratike an Afrik la, chak lwa se reprezantasyon yon sen Katolik nan Vodou Ayisyen an, e yo selebre yo menm dat nan de relijion sa yo. Gen twa (3) kalite lwa. Gen lwa Rada, ki se lwa saj yo ; lwa Petro, ki se lwa vyolan ; lwa Gede, ki gen ak wè ak mò yo. Pandan revolisyon Ayisyèn lan, lwa Petro yo te posede pi fò esklav yo. Youn an patikilye se Ogou Feray ki te ba yo anpil fòs e ede yo genyen endepandans yo.

 Ogou Feray se yon lwa anpil Ayisyen sèvi. Li se senbòl travay ak politik. Reprezantasyon li nan legliz katolik se Sen Jòj. Ogou se yon bel gason wo, byen kanpe. Li se yon konbatan pwisan, yon gran defansè. Li bay moun ki sèvi l’ yo fôs e li pwoteje yo. Konsa tou, li trè sevè. Depi sèvitè l’ ap fè sa k’ pa sa, l’ap pini yo. Li mete yo ajenou kòrèkteman, epi baton ! Li se yon lwa ki renmen fanm anpil e ki trè chaman. Dayè li gen 2 madanm : Ezili Dantò ak Ezili Freda. De lwa sa yo se de sè, men yo tankou lèt ak sitwon, oubyen m ta ka di, tankou Tòm ak Jerry. Ou paka sèvi tou de ansanm. Ezili Dantò se yon lwa Petro. Se yon bèl nègrès ki toujou akonpanye de pitit fi li Ti Koukoun. Dantò se yon lwa ki gen anpil kouraj e ki agresif. Si m’ ka anplwaye yon tèm anglè pou dekri li, m ta ka di li se yon « tonmbòy », kontrèman ak Freda ki pi feminin. Li se yon konbatan e li trè endepandan. Li se defansè timoun ak fanm ke mari yo ap abize oubyen ap twonpe yo. Li se yon lwa vyolan, sitou ak manman k’ap maltrete pitit yo, avèk gason k’ap bat fanm. Li bèbè paske yo te koupe lang li, donk se pitit li ki entèprete pou li nan seremoni yo. Reprezantasyon li se Nòtre Dam Pèpetyèl Sekou. Depi sèvitè’l fidèl avè’l, tout zafè yo ap byen mache. Ezili Freda li menm se yon lwa Rada, men li onjan frekan. Nanpwen madanm ekzijan konsa, Li pa dakò separe chanm ak lòt lwa. Epi kontrèman ak Dantò, li paresèz anpil. Freda se yon grimèl, yon bèl milatrès. Ou kwè se fanm ki chèlbè sa! Li renmen flè, bijou, ak bon pafen chè. Li trè pwòp. Li bay sèvitè l’ chans ak lajan. Li renmen gason anpil. Dayè a pa de Ogou, li gen 2 lot mari : Danbala ak Agwe. Lè li monte nan tèt yon fi, fi a ap tonbe file, bo, oswa karese mezi gason ki nan asistans lan. Yo sèvi l’ anpil an Ayiti pou rezoud problèm kòb ak lanmou. Li ka rale nèg pou sèvitè l’, men malerezman relasyon an pap dire paske se menm li menm k’ap kraze sa. Li jalouz anpil. Reprezantasyon li se Nòtre Dam Doulè. Ou ka renmen fè kapris tou wi, men e pa pase’l. Li pale fransè, anglè ak yon ti kal kreyol, men li pa pale fasil nan seremoni yo paske li onjan pretansyèz. Li pito fè siy lè l’ap mande yon bagay. Epi depi lè a rive pou l’ ale li pete kriye paske li pa janm ka satisfè de sa lèzòm ka ofri l’. Li se senbòl bote avèk liks, oubyen nou ta ka di « la boujwazi ». Koulè li se woz ak blan.

 Dezièm mari Freda, Papa Danbala, se reprezantasyon Sen Patrik. Li se yon lwa trè saj. Lè yo rele l’ nan yon seremoni, pa dwe gen moun k’ap bwè ni fimen. Nou ka remake iwoni an, etan done nan kilti blan an, fèt sen Patrik repite pou yon jou moun bwè anpil alkòl. Lè Danbala monte nan tèt yon pratikan, li ranpe atè e li sifle tankou koulèv. Li se senbòl inosans, lapè, ak bonte. M’ pa ka fini ti istwa sa san m’ pa pale nou de minis agrikilti nan Vodou a, ki se Kouzen Zaka. Se yon lwa ki popilè anpil an Ayiti, sitou nan sektè riral la. Li se reprezantasyon Sen Izidò. Kouzen se yon peyizan ki pa trò mele ak moun lavil. Li toujou vini pye atè nan seremoni yo ak chapo pay li sou tèt li, djakout li bò anch li, ak pip li nan bouch li. Li se yon gwo doktè fèy. Yo rele l’ anpil pou koze remèd fèy pou konbat kèk maladi. Men, se yon lwa ki tripòt anpil tou. Lè l’ prezan nan yon seremoni, li mete zafè nenpòt moun ki nan asistans lan deyò, e li pap sere kras! Se yon lwa trè senp, e li renmen danse anpil. Dayè se pandan m’ap danse avè l’ li vire m’ vire m’ vire m’ tankou yon toupi, ki fè m’ ateri jouk la pou m’ vin rakonte nou ti istwa sila. Malerezman, si pou m’ ta chita pale nou de tout lwa yo nèt, mwen pa tap’ janm fini!

 

j’ai pu découvrir une autre facette du Vaudou, contraire à celle que la société m’a inculquée. Certes, un grand nombre de personnes usent de cette religion à des fins funestes, mais son usage va au-delà de la magie noire. Le Vaudou est une forme d’expression, une manifestation des mystères du monde spirituel dans le monde humain. Il représente pour certains, une source de paix, de prospérité et de protection. Soyons plus ouverts et plus tolérants envers cette religion qui, selon moi, est assez passionnante. Apprenons à l’explorer sous un regard moins tendancieux. Après tout, Saints de l’Eglise Catholique ou Loas du Peristil Vaudouesque, qui vénérons-nous réellement ?

Sources : hougansydney.com ; jamesduvalier.com

 

RAB

 

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Ricka A Barron
Young woman pursuing a master's degree in Development and Population Sciences, with a vision of a better Haiti, the country that has given her birth and stolen her heart... Dull bio right? I promise my posts aren't! ;)

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